14 Jun GREENHOUSE SYSTEMS
Nowadays, soil, air and water pollution are gradually increasing, causing agriculture to decline, and unhealthy and poor-quality production is increasing. In addition, the demand of world markets for nutrients necessitates our production to move towards foreign markets.
Our country is known as an agricultural country, as we will remember from the old ones, but our agricultural production declines as the years pass. However, greenhouse (under cover) activities are increasing. Several measures need to be taken to increase and improve agricultural production. One of these measures is the greenhouse management in which nutrient and energy management can be performed together, as it enables quality and continuous production in our country’s climatic conditions. Nowadays agriculture is carried out in many places under greenhouse. It is possible to see more especially in the Mediterranean and Aegean regions.
Greenhouse is a closed area created for plant growing. There are greenhouses in various structures including nylon, plastic and glass. Greenhouse cultivation is also called under cover cultivation. The biggest advantage of undergrowth cultivation, that is, greenhouses, is that the environment in which the plant is grown is isolated from the external environment because it is closed. This provides great convenience in air conditioning.
Greenhouse peripherals consist of heating, ventilation, cooling, shading, fogging, irrigation and fertilizing systems. When the plant growth environment is mentioned, it is the soil that comes to mind first. However, the main problems stemming from soil, especially in greenhouse cultivation, have led to a so-called landless agriculture. Soilless cultivation is based on supplying water and nutrients required for plant life to the root environment in required amounts.
In soilless culture, the salinity, mineral density, air and water of the plant root are adjusted in a more balanced way. As in ForFarming, nutrients are used more effectively in soilless farming. Soilless agriculture is very suitable for greenhouse automation. With the automation to be made, labor saving is provided. In soilless agriculture, the disease of the plant can be controlled without the need for pesticides. Since it is possible to grow plants more frequently in accordance with the conditions of hydroponic agriculture, if the light is enough, the product to be obtained per unit area is higher.
It is desirable to establish optimal environmental conditions for the development of the plant in the time period from planting the soil to the production in the greenhouse to the time of harvesting the product from the soil. The climatic parameters for the formation of these environmental conditions; temperature, light intensity, ambient humidity, soil moisture should be kept under control. In accordance with the data received from the sensors in the greenhouse, heater, ventilation, water pump, such as the activation and output of devices created to improve the environmental conditions of the software and hardware system is called greenhouse automation.
The greenhouse automation system is a greenhouse that can adapt to the changes in the outdoor weather conditions by considering the energy economy, and can decide on the requests of the plant in the root zone to save water, strategically manage the plant development, greenhouse climate and plant nutrients within the framework of total management concept.
In this automation developed to increase the efficiency of greenhouses, parameters such as temperature, humidity, rain, storage level are controlled.
The general principle in greenhouse production is the artificial creation of the necessary light, temperature, humidity and air components for the product to be cultivated. By keeping these components at the right levels, economic efficiency is increased in the region, more than one production is taken in a year, the problem of transportation to the market is eliminated, the yield of the plant increases, losses are lost due to seasonal labor and employment is provided for 365 days.