11 May SMART AGRICULTURE
Agricultural products have been produced by farmers for centuries using traditional methods. Since each country, region and city is located under different climatic conditions, the regions have their own production, irrigation and harvesting techniques. Although these techniques are suitable for producing the product suitable for that region, the climate, ventilation, irrigation duration and frequency, enlightenment intensity and duration, nutrient type and quantity/concentration in water are most suitable for a particular product in order to produce high yield with global sustainable agricultural policies. It is necessary to determine the values and ensure that the plant has appropriate conditions. This situation necessitated that agriculture should be done by using modern and smart techniques with scientific infrastructure instead of traditional and local methods.
Smart farming; It has three basic components: measuring all ambient conditions in the production environment, calculating the most suitable environment condition and nutrient/water/lighting values based on plant species and ensuring that the plant has suitable environmental conditions.
- Measurement of ambient conditions: Temperature, humidity, light level, CO2 ratio, O2 ratio of the plantation area and pH and electrical conductivity values of water / nutrient mixture used for irrigation of the plant are measured. Although these values are measured in many soilless agricultural greenhouses, they are generally only used to provide instant information to the farmer and are not sent to any server or automation system.
- Calculation of appropriate environmental values based on plant species: The optimum environmental conditions for the cultivation of different plant species with the highest yields are determined by scientific studies conducted in the faculties of agriculture and biology institutes. In standard landless agricultural systems, suitable values for plants are determined by the farmer and greenhouses are provided to reach these values by manual methods. In intelligent farming systems, the environmental conditions that the plant must possess in order to reach these optimum conditions are calculated with the help of the data collected in the sensors and submitted to the approval of the farmer.
- Reaching the plant to suitable environmental conditions: In intelligent agricultural systems; Server-controlled automation systems are used to achieve the appropriate environmental conditions calculated in point 2nd: Processes such as operating the lighting modules at appropriate times, periods and with enough light intensity, watering the plants in the appropriate time and time, ensuring that the water and nutrient mixture have the necessary and sufficient nutrient ratio are realized by the automation system.
Intelligent agricultural systems generally use Internet of Things (IoT) based technologies. All sowing areas are equipped with sensors. Each sensor is connected to the central server via a computer network. The fact that any sensor cannot send data instantly does not adversely affect the overall operation of the system; Therefore, the sensor calibrations must be accurate and repeated at regular intervals.
ForFarming servers; A software platform with artificial learning infrastructure that communicates with automation system and sensors works. The sensors used connect to the servers through a sensor network designed in accordance with IoT standards.